# Booleans and Conditional Execution   Part 1

We recommend that you read pages 77-92 from Chapter 3 of the book Javascript and jQuery: The missing manual.

## Decisions, decisions, decisions ...

So far, the Javascript code we have seen has been executed unconditionally. When we wrote a sequence of statements, those statements were executed one after another, in order.

Many programming tasks, however, require conditional control, that is, the ability to react differently based upon some condition. For example, consider the task of assigning students' letter grades. Depending upon what the student's average is, a different letter grade must be assigned (e.g., 93 to 100 is an A, 86 to 93 is a A-, etc.). In this lesson, you will be introduced to booleans, truth values that represent a decision, and to the `if` statement, which performs conditional execution based on a boolean value. Based upon some condition, an `if` statement can choose among alternative sequences of code to execute, or even choose to execute no code at all.

Some examples, just to get us warmed up:

## Boolean Values

The JavaScript values we have seen so far are numbers and strings.

Today we meet the logical values `true` and `false`. These two values are called booleans. They are named after George Boole, a 19th century English mathematician who developed an algebraic framework for reasoning about the manipulation of truth values.

A boolean expression is any expression whose value is a boolean value. The simplest boolean expressions are the boolean literals `true` and `false`, which can be written directly in a JavaScript program. However, in a program, it is more typical for boolean values to be generated as the result of comparisons or other operations.

For example, relational operators on numbers produce boolean values:

Expression Value Notes
num Type in a number to initialize the `num` variable. Then click the button so that all fields in the table are updated.
num < 50 less than
num <= 23 less than or equal to
num == 57 equal to (`==` tests equality, but `=` performs assignment!)
num != 17 not equal to
num > 110 greater than
num >= 42 greater than or equal to

Here are some examples of boolean expressions involving strings:

Expression Value Notes
str Type in a different string to change the `str` variable. Then click the button so that all fields in the table are updated.
str == "CS110 rocks!" `==` also tests equality of strings
str != "Grover" `!=` also tests inequality on strings
str <= "CS111 is cool!" Strings are compared lexicographically (in dictionary order)
str > "CS24 isn't a course" Careful! Numbers in strings are also treated lexicographically.
str.length == 12 `s.length` returns the number of characters in `s`
str.indexOf("110") == 2 `s1.indexOf(s2)` returns the first (0-based) index of `s2` in `s1`
str.indexOf("Rocks") == -1 `indexOf` returns -1 if string isn't found
str.charAt(1) == "S" `s.charAt(i)` returns the character at (0-based) index `i` in `s`
(In JS, a character is just a one-character string.)

## `if` Statements

Conditional execution refers to the ability to execute a statement or sequence of statements only if some condition holds. The simplest form of conditional statement involves only one possible action. For example, displaying a message when the value of a variable is `"Grover"`. However, conditional execution can also involve alternatives based on the same or related conditions. For example, we might want to display one message if the variable value is "Grover" and another message if it isn't. This type of conditional execution in JavaScript is performed using `if` statements.

The following example uses an `if` statement to greet Grover specially. Let's say we have gotten the name of the visitor stored in a variable `first_name`. The symbol `==` is used in JavaScript to test for equality (remember, just one `=` is for assignments!).

The following example uses the other form of an `if ` statement to greet Grover and to be a bit hostile to everyone else.

In the first example, an alert box is displayed only if the condition `(first_name == "Grover")` holds. If the condition does not hold, then nothing special happens: the next JavaScript statement (if there is one) is evaluated.

The second example includes an `else` case which specifies the action to be taken when the condition does not hold (i.e., `first_name` is not equal to `"Grover"`).

In an `if-else` statement, exactly one of the two actions will be executed.

In general, an `if` statement looks like this:

```    if (BOOLEAN_EXPRESSION) {   // This is called the "test expression"
STATEMENTS_IF_TRUE      // This is called the "then arm" or "then branch"
} else {
STATEMENTS_IF_FALSE     // This is called the "else arm" or "else branch"
}
```

The `else` part is optional.

Try an example here, testing whether a number is positive.

The test in an `if` statement can be any boolean expression, that is, any expression that evaluates to either `true` or `false`.

#### Exercise 1

Add an `else` case to the `if` statement so that it displays an appropriate message in the event that the number is not positive. Test your modified page on various inputs and list the results. What will be displayed when the number is 0?

#### Gotchas

• The parentheses around the test expression in an `if` statement are mandatory. So you cannot write
```if input_num > 0 { // missing required parens for test expression
```if (input_num > 0)